The Science

The science behind Air Disinfection Biosecurity

The science behind ADB

PathogenFocus' Air Disinfection Biosecurity technology units are highly effective against viruses (including SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19), bacteria, mold, spores, and all common pathogens. This technology is proven safe and effective. But how does it work?

  1. First, ambient air is captured and exposed to high frequency controlled electrical pulses within the system's chamber. Moisture from the air is broken down at the molecular level. No toxic chemicals are used nor generated.
  2. This creates a burst of particles referred to as Highly Reactive Molecules (HRM), including gas-phase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 - a powerful biocide), superoxide (O2-) and singlet oxygen (1O2). Singlet oxygen is a very strong oxidant and readily oxidizes cellular structure components such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Singlet oxygen can be quite long-lived in a cell and can diffuse over appreciable distances, including across cellular membranes into extracellular compartments.
  3. These reactive particles are then dispersed through the air via the HVAC/air handling system or standalone unit acting as airborne neutralizing agents.
  4. HRMs contact air and surface pathogens, destroying their DNA/RNA to render them inactive.

These ADB systems utilize no consumables. They work by converting humidity (H2O vapor to H2O2) via a Modulated Dielectric Barrier Discharge System. Dynamic control modules are programmed for accurate environmental readings every 60 to 75 seconds. The controller's interface determines to engage or disengage the modulated barrier discharge intermittently for consistent sanitation.

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hydrogen peroxide

H2O2's role vs. pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2

H2O2 molecules (two parts oxygen and two parts hydrogen) are nature's natural pathogen elimination system. Utilizing this technology is extremely safe for human occupants to rapidly eliminate pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide has been used by the medical community for 170 years. H2O2 is used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and household cleaners.

The best pathogen elimination systems on the market utilize H2O2. The EPA has recognized hydrogen peroxide molecules as an effective infection control and microbial treatment technology.

In addition to inactivating viruses and killing bacteria, H2O2 will neutralize preexisting mold and fungus.

The system uses very little energy to operate, typically around 0.15 watts per square foot treated. The system enables dramatically reduced air intake by the HVAC system, saving energy whenever heating or cooling is needed.

H2O2 molecules (two parts oxygen and two parts hydrogen) are nature's natural pathogen elimination system. Utilizing this technology is extremely safe for human occupants to rapidly eliminate pathogens. Hydrogen peroxide has been used by the medical community for 170 years. H2O2 is used in toothpaste, mouthwash, and household cleaners.

The best pathogen elimination system on the market utilize H2O2. The EPA has recognized hydrogen peroxide molecules as an effective infection control and microbial treatment technology.

In addition to inactivating viruses and killing bacteria, H2O2 will neutralize preexisting mold and fungus.

The system uses very little energy to operate, typically around .15 watts per square foot treated. The system enables dramatically reduced air intake by the HVAC system, saving energy whenever heating or cooling is needed.

Our natural immune system

It's interesting to note that within our own body's immune system, when a microbe is recognized by phagocytes and engulfed, a natural immune response process called respiratory burst is initiated. Much of this process within our own body's immune response centers around this very reaction of superoxide and water to create H2O2, as well as the reaction of singlet oxygen which, as mentioned earlier, will oxidize many of a microbe's cellular components. In a way, we are essentially taking this part of our body's natural immune response to pathogens and bringing it out into our building spaces. Once the reaction is complete, we are left with water vapor and non-reactive O2.

The body's immune system fights pathogens similarly to ADB technology

Advantages over other potential solutions

ADB technology provides many advantages over other pathogen eradicating solutions. Utilizing ultraviolet light at 254 nanometers (UVC) is proven effective against pathogens, but relies on line of sight, so it isn't a perfect solution for hard-to-reach areas. Also, UVC can be hazardous to the skin and eyes of humans. So when UVC is utilized, it must be in either unoccupied spaces, or in indirect applications such as enclosed air boxes or upper air irradiation units.

Bipolar ionization units are also being advertised as a pathogen eradicating option. However, the efficacy of these products is in question. And there is a possibility these units create hazardous by-products.

When comparing the various methods of pathogen eradication, another very important factor to consider is speed. Speed is critical. If an infected person enters a space and releases SARS-CoV-2 into the air, the speed in which the system inactivates the virus is of the utmost importance. ADB technology works tremendously faster than other methods in the market. The transmission of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 is vastly diminished by the fact that airborne viruses are inactivated so quickly by ADB. Airborne SARS-CoV-2 is reduced by 90 percent in 16 seconds, and by 99.9 percent in 30 seconds using ADB.

In an independent third party testing laboratory, ADB units performed much better than other common methods of pathogen elimination. ADB achieved a 3-log reduction kill rate (99.9 percent reduction) significantly faster than the rest.

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